Forum of Augustus
The Forum of Augustus is a monumental square of Ancient Rome, built by order of Emperor Gaius Julius Caesar Octavian Augustus. There are five imperial forums in total. The opening of the Forum of Augustus took place in 2 BC. The monument became a symbol of greatness and praise of Octavian Augustus. It also served as the political and religious center of Ancient Rome.
Gaius Julius Caesar received the title of Augustus by decision of the Senate. This title was given to rulers like deities. Emperor who reigned from 27 BC to 14 AD, is known in history as a great reformer. During his reign, he directed his efforts to multiplying the wealth of Ancient Rome and making it monumental. For this purpose, many architectural monuments and buildings were created.
Octavian Augustus is the great-nephew and adopted son of Gaius Julius Caesar. He solemnly promised to erect a temple in honor of Mars Ultor (known as the Avenger) if Caesar's assassins were defeated. The battle was won, and Octavian kept his promise.
For construction, a site was chosen, located near the Forum of Julius Caesar. It was assumed that the Forum of Augustus would be the same majestic and large-scale. But the Romans lived on the territory allotted for it, and the monument was built a little less than planned. Augustus assured that the forum and the temple were erected on his land, but excavations showed the presence of the remains of the dwellings of the Romans. This indicates that some of the houses were nevertheless destroyed. Construction began in 30 BC, but the main stage took place in 20 BC. An event to which in 2 AD. It was timed to coincide with the opening of the Forum of Augustus, called the annual celebration in honor of the god Mars. With the end of the construction of the forum, Augustus also announced his successor - the grandson of Lucius.
The appearance of the Forum of Augustus solved an important social problem - the arrangement of space for significant ceremonies. The Forum excluded the presence of retail space, unlike the Forum of Caesar. This gave him solemnity.
At the entrance, the Romans found themselves in a large square surrounded by colonnades. A high wall was erected around the forum, which closed it from residential buildings and served as protection from fires. To this day, in Rome, you can find the remains of a majestic wall, preserved after millennia.
At the center of the Forum of Augustus was the Temple of Mars the Avenger, which had three entrances at once. The temple, like the entire forum, was decorated with marble. In the middle of a wide staircase was an altar, on both sides of which fountains were installed. In the temple, along with the image of Julius Caesar, there was a sculpture of Augustus himself.
To this day, only its ruins have survived from the Forum of Augustus - parts of the columns, stairs, medallions with Roman deities, pilasters and other architectural fragments. The surviving artifacts delight with the talent of ancient architects who managed to create a majestic monument.