The Kazan Kremlin is one of the oldest attractions of the Tatarstan capital, laid back in the 12th century. Today, the residence of the President of the Republic of Tajikistan is located here, as well as many other managerial and cultural facilities. Since 2000, it has been included in the UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
Researchers cannot agree on the assessment when the first fortifications were built at the confluence of the Volga and Kazanka rivers. Someone says that the fortification appeared in the 10th century, someone in the 12th. In 1236, the troops of the Golden Horde ravaged Bulgar, after 4 years the Volga Bulgaria, like many Russian principalities became dependent on the Horde. Many Bulgarians fled to the Kazan River area. In 1370, Prince Bulgar - Hassan began to erect a citadel in the Kazan Kremlin. The citadel was a residence until 1445, until Kazan captured the khan of Ulu-Muhammed, who soon founded the Kazan Khanate. Khan again began to collect tribute from the Moscow Principality. At that time, the fortress was defended by walls of oak up to 9 meters thick, the marshy terrain was guarded from the west, and the southeast side was fenced with protective moats.
In 1552, Ivan the Terrible besieged Kazan, leaving only ruins from it. Soon the king called the architects from Pskov to build a white-stone Kremlin. The new fortress was significantly larger than the previous one, only 6 of the 13 towers of the Kremlin were built of stone, the walls were mostly made of oak, only by the 17th century the walls were completely changed to stone. In connection with the expansion of the Russian Empire in the 18th century, Kazan lost its military function and became the cultural centers of the entire Volga region.
On the Kazan Kremlin, one of Kazan’s bright sights, the Kul Sharif Mosque, built on the grounds of the main mosque of the Kazan Khanate, destroyed by the siege of Kazan by the army of Ivan Grozny, immediately catches the eye. The mosque itself was named after the imam, who led the defense of the city. In the Kremlin in the 16th century, under the guidance of the Pskov architects Postnik Yakovlev and Ivan Shireyaev, the Blagoveshchensky Cathedral was built. Until 1815, the Tumor's Courtyard is located in the Kazan Kremlin, which made a huge contribution to the victory over the French in the Great Patriotic War of 1812. Now the Weapons Museum is located in this building, there are also many other museums, the office of the President of the Republic of Tajikistan, the Khazin art gallery, the RT Arbitration Court and other government buildings.