Brief description of the country

Thailand is an exotic country in Southeast Asia with an area of more than half a million square kilometers and a population of over 69 million people. The capital is Bangkok, the official language is Thai, but many people speak English well.

The name of the state is translated as "country of the free", and this is not just a beautiful phrase. Thailand has never been conquered in its entire history. It is always warm here, so many tourists come here to spend the winter. The locals are friendly to travelers, and for this, Thailand was nicknamed the land of smiles in society.

When planning your trip, you should be aware that the rainy season lasts from April to October. Clear days are rare, mostly during this period there are showers, the sea is stormy. The dry season starts in late autumn and ends in spring. The average temperature during this period is +30°C, the water warms up to +27°C.

You can relax in parks, visit museums, meditate in temples, have a beach holiday, surf, enjoy nature or dance in nightclubs. Elephant, snake and monkey shows are popular.


The history of Thailand is over 700 years old and has many interesting events and periods. Here is a brief overview of the history of Thailand:

Ancient history: There is a lot of evidence that there are already ancient civilizations on the territory of Thailand. The Kingdom of Dvaravati (6th-11th centuries) and the Kingdom of Sukhothai (13th-14th centuries) were two famous ancient civilizations in what is now Thailand.

Ayutthaya Kingdom (1351-1767): In 1351, King Rama Thibodi I founded the Ayutthaya Kingdom, which became the first single kingdom in Thailand. During its existence, the kingdom of Ayutthaya faced the influence of neighboring empires, including the Han Empire and Burma. In 1767, the kingdom of Ayutthaya was conquered by Burmese troops.

Ratchaburi Kingdom (1782-1932): In 1782, King Rama I established the new capital of Bangkok and his Chakri dynasty ruled over the new Ratchaburi kingdom. During this period, Thailand avoided colonization by Western powers and was able to maintain its independence. At the end of the 19th century, Thailand entered a period of modernization and reform, which resulted in the creation of a constitutional monarchy.

Modern history: In 1932, a coup d'état took place in Thailand, as a result of which a constitutional monarchy was proclaimed. Over the following decades, Thailand has become one of the fastest growing economies in the region. However, the country has also faced political instability and periods of military rule.

Today, Thailand is a popular tourist destination, has a developed economy and retains its unique culture and traditions. The monarchy plays an important role in the country's political system, and the people of Thailand are proud of their rich history and national heritage.


Thailand has a tropical climate, which is divided into three main seasons: dry, rainy and transitional.

  • Dry season (November - February): At this time of the year, the weather in Thailand is the most comfortable and dry. The temperature usually ranges from 25 to 30 degrees Celsius. This is a popular season for tourism, especially on southern beaches such as Phuket, Krabi and Koh Samui.
  • Rainy Season (March - October): This is the time of the year when Thailand receives the most rainfall. The climate becomes humid and hot, with an average temperature of around 30 degrees Celsius. On the south coast, especially in the Phuket and Krabi region, the rains can be intense. However, this is also the time when accommodation and airfare prices may be lower, and some tourists choose to visit Thailand during this period.
  • Transitional season (April - October): Thailand transitions from rainy to dry season during the transitional season. During this time of year the weather can be changeable, with some rain and periods of sunshine. The temperature stays high and the humidity stays high.

It is important to note that the climate in different regions of Thailand may vary slightly. For example, on the south coast, including the islands, the climate may be different from the northern regions. Before traveling, it is recommended to check the weather forecast for a particular region in order to be prepared for the peculiarities of the climate during your visit to Thailand.

Flora and fauna

Thailand has a rich diversity of flora and fauna due to its diverse climate and geography. Here are some characteristics of the flora and fauna of Thailand:


  • Jungle and Rainforest: Thailand is known for its picturesque jungles and rainforests, which are located in different regions of the country. Here you can find many types of plants, including exotic orchids, bamboo, palm trees and many others.
  • Rice fields: Thailand is one of the largest rice producers in the world, and rice fields are a characteristic feature of the landscape. In some areas, such as Chiang Mai and Isan, you can see endless green fields spread over hills and valleys.


  • Elephant: Thailand is famous for its elephants, which are the symbol of the country. Elephants can be seen both in national parks and in special centers for the protection of elephants.
  • Tiger: Thailand is also home to a number of tiger species, including the Indochinese tiger. However, the number of tigers in the country has declined and they are endangered.
  • Monkeys: Thailand is home to various types of monkeys such as macaques and gibbons. They can often be seen in national parks and reserves.
  • Exotic Birds: Thailand is home to a variety of exotic birds including peacocks, pheasants, hummingbirds and other colorful species.
  • Marine Life: With its long coastline, Thailand offers a wealth of marine life. Coral reefs attract divers and snorkelers from all over the world, while marine creatures such as clownfish, sea turtles and rays are part of a unique ecosystem.

This is only a small part of the flora and fauna of Thailand. The country is rich in diversity of nature and wildlife, which makes it an attractive destination for nature and animal lovers.


Thailand is located in Southeast Asia and covers an area of about 513,000 square kilometers. It borders Myanmar (Burma) to the west and northwest, Laos to the north and east, Cambodia to the east, and Malaysia to the south.

Geographically, Thailand can be divided into several regions:

  • North: The northern region of Thailand is a mountainous region with hills and valleys. Famous cities such as Chiang Mai and Chiang Rai are located here, as well as national parks, including Doi Inthanon Park and Doi Suthep Park.
  • Center: The central part of Thailand is the plains and fertile valleys that serve as the main agricultural region of the country. The capital Bangkok is located here, as well as other major cities such as Ayutthaya and Nakhon Ratchasima.
  • Northeast (Isan): This region borders Laos and has a dry and fertile climate. Isan is the least developed region of Thailand but is home to many cultural attractions and archaeological finds.
  • East: The east coast of Thailand stretches along the bay of the Gulf of Thailand. Here are popular tourist cities such as Pattaya and Rayong, as well as industrial estates and ports.
  • South: The southern part of Thailand stretches along the Andaman and Thai seas. Famous resorts such as Phuket, Krabi and Koh Samui are located here. The region is known for its beautiful beaches, islands and coral reefs.

Thailand is also famous for its rivers, including the Chao Phraya River, which flows through Bangkok, and the Mekong River, which is the border with Laos. The climate of Thailand is tropical, with high humidity and high temperatures all year round.

Thailand offers a diverse geography, with beautiful scenery, mountains, plains and coastline making it an attractive destination for travelers and tourists.

National cuisine

Thai cuisine is one of the most famous and popular in the world due to its vibrant flavors, fresh ingredients and unique combinations. It is characterized by pungency, sweetness, acidity and corned beef, creating a bright and rich taste experience. Here are some famous Thai dishes:

  • Pad Thai: This is perhaps the most famous Thai dish. Pad Thai is fried rice noodles with tamarind sauce, shrimp or chicken, egg, soy sprouts, peanuts and lime.
  • Tom Yum: This is a spicy and sour soup dish usually made with coconut milk, lemongrass, lime, mushrooms, seafood, or chicken. It is known for its bright aroma and savory taste.
  • Green Curry: This is one of the most popular curries in Thailand. Green curry is made with green curry paste, coconut milk, bamboo sprouts, vegetables, and meat (usually chicken or seafood). It has a sharp and fragrant taste.
  • Somtam: This is a traditional papaya salad made with tender green papaya, tomatoes, dried shrimp, sesame seeds, lime, fish sauce and hot peppers. Somtam is a popular dish in northeastern Thailand.
  • Massaman curry: This is a rich and flavorful dish that combines influences from Indian and Malay cuisines. Massaman curry is made with potatoes, meat (usually beef), coconut milk, onion, peanuts and spices such as coriander, cumin and cinnamon.
  • Poh pia: This is a dish of fried meat (usually pork), vegetables, and hot peppers. It has a savory flavor and is often served with rice.
  • Homek: This is a dish of fish, coconut milk, red curry paste and various vegetables cooked in a banana leaf. It has a delicate and fragrant taste.

In addition to these dishes, fresh herbs, spices and sauces such as kaffir lime, lemongrass, basil, red pepper, soy sauce are widely used in Thai cuisine.

Travel Tips

Here are some tips for tourists planning to visit Thailand:

  • Visa and Passport: Check the visa requirements for your country before traveling to Thailand. Make sure your passport is valid for the duration of your intended stay.
  • Security: As in any country, be aware of your personal safety. Keep valuables safe, do not carry a lot of money and jewelry with you, especially in popular tourist places.
  • Health insurance: It is recommended to have international health insurance before traveling to Thailand. This will help you get medical attention or evacuation if necessary.
  • Climate and packaging: Consider Thailand's climate when packing your clothes. In most regions of the country, a tropical climate dominates, so light and airy clothing will be most comfortable. Also don't forget to bring sunscreen, a hat and coolers.
  • Cultural considerations: Respect local customs and culture. Dress modestly when visiting temples and sacred sites. Be polite and smile, it often helps to interact with the locals.
  • Food and water safety: Avoid drinking tap water and ice, purchase bottled water. Also pay attention to the places you eat to avoid food poisoning. It is preferable to choose restaurants with a good reputation.
  • Transportation: Be careful on the roads and follow the rules of the road. Use licensed taxis or transportation services. In some cases it is possible to rent motorcycles, but be careful and be sure to have an international license.
  • Drugs: The use and trade of drugs is strictly prohibited in Thailand. Breaking the law can result in severe penalties, including imprisonment.
  • Respect for Buddhism: Buddhism is the main religion in Thailand. Respect sacred sites and Buddha images, do not touch or stand over them to take pictures.

Visa and customs

You may need a visa when traveling to Thailand, depending on your country of citizenship and intended stay. Here is some information about visas and customs in Thailand:

  • Visa requirements: Most citizens of many countries can visit Thailand without a visa for up to 30 days if entering by air and up to 15 days if entering by land. This is called "visa-free regime". However, if you are planning to stay in Thailand for more than this period, you will need to obtain a tourist visa in advance from the Thai Embassy or Consulate in your country.
  • Tourist visa: A tourist visa allows you to stay in Thailand for up to 60 days. You can extend this period for another 30 days at your local immigration office. Contact your nearest Thai embassy or consulate for information on the requirements and procedure for obtaining a tourist visa.
  • Arriving in Thailand: When you enter Thailand, you must fill out an arrival/departure card, which is usually issued on board the aircraft or at the point of entry. Fill out this card and present it along with your passport and visa (if required) at passport control.
  • Customs regulations: There are certain customs restrictions when entering and leaving Thailand. You can bring in personal belongings and items, but there are restrictions on bringing drugs, weapons, illegal items and large sums of money without a declaration. When exporting from Thailand, there are also restrictions on the export of antiques, cultural property and some animals and plants. It is recommended that you familiarize yourself with the customs regulations of Thailand before traveling or contact the customs authorities for details.
  • VAT refund: In some cases, if you shop in Thailand, you may be able to receive a VAT refund when you leave the country. Make sure you complete the required forms and have your tax refund receipts in order to take advantage of this opportunity.

It is recommended that you contact the nearest Thai embassy or consulate in your country or contact the Thai customs authorities for up-to-date and detailed information on visa and customs requirements.

Holidays, festivals

Thailand is a country with a rich cultural heritage and hosts many celebrations and festivals throughout the year. Here are some of the most famous holidays and festivals in Thailand:

  • Songkran (Thai New Year): This is the most famous and popular holiday in Thailand and is celebrated from 13 to 15 April each year. These days, people from all over the country are having huge water battles in the streets, symbolizing cleansing and renewal. This is a great time to immerse yourself in the traditional culture of Thailand and enjoy the fun.
  • Loy Krathong: This festival is celebrated in November and is one of the most romantic and beautiful festivals in Thailand. On this day, people release floating lotus boats with candles onto rivers and lakes, symbolizing purification and getting rid of troubles. This creates a magical atmosphere, especially in the evening when the water is lit up by candles.
  • Yi Peng: This festival is associated with the release of sky lanterns. People launch thousands of lanterns into the sky to release negative energies and bring good luck and happiness. Yi Peng is usually celebrated in November and is one of the most spectacular sights in Thailand.
  • Wat Phra Kaeo (Emerald Buddha Festival): Wat Phra Kaeo is an annual festival celebrated in Bangkok in early December. The main event is the procession with the Emerald Buddha being carried from the Temple of the Emerald Buddha to the Grand Palace. The whole city at this time comes alive with a festive atmosphere.
  • Fruit Carving Festival: Thailand is famous for its fruit carving skills and there is an annual festival dedicated to this art. At the festival, you will see intricate and colorful sculptures made from various fruits and vegetables.
  • Maslenitsa: Although Maslenitsa is a Russian holiday, in Thailand it is celebrated as part of the tourist season in Phuket. At this time, tourists and locals can enjoy Russian traditions, such as Maslenitsa festivities, sleigh races and various entertainments.

These are just some of the many holidays and festivals celebrated in Thailand. Schedule and dates may change each year.

Shopping and souvenirs

Thailand is a popular shopping destination due to the variety of goods available at affordable prices. Here is some information about shopping in Thailand:

  • Shopping Malls: In the big cities of Thailand like Bangkok and Phuket, you will find huge shopping malls with many shops, boutiques and restaurants. Some of the more popular malls in Bangkok include Siam Paragon, CentralWorld, MBK Center and Terminal 21. In Phuket, you can visit Jungceylon and Central Festival. Here you will find global brands, local products, electronics, clothing, accessories and more.
  • Markets: There are various markets in Thailand where you can buy unique goods at lower prices. Night markets such as Bangkok's Patpong and Phuket's Bangla Night Market offer a wide variety of souvenirs, clothing, jewelry, electronics, and street food. Chatuchak in Bangkok is one of the largest markets in the world where you will find everything from clothes to antiques and home goods. The Floating Fisherman's Market at Damnoen Saduak offers a unique buying experience on floating boats.
  • Street markets and boutiques: Thailand also has many street markets and boutiques where you can buy local goods and handicrafts. At the Phuket Market in Chalong, you will find a wide selection of textiles, ceramics, wood carvings and other souvenirs. In Bangkok, you can visit the areas of Siam and Sukhumvit, where there are numerous boutiques and shops with clothing, accessories and designer goods.
  • Traditional Crafts: Thailand is known for its traditional crafts such as silk making, jewelry making, pottery making and woodcarving. You can visit factories and shops to see the creation process and purchase unique pieces.
  • High-end venues: Thailand also offers high-end shopping with global brands and designer shops. Bangkok's Ratchaprasong area is a popular high-end shopping destination with shops such as Gaysorn Village and Central Embassy.


Thailand is a popular tourist destination with many attractions and activities for visitors. Here are some of them:

  • Beaches: Thailand is famous for its beautiful beaches where you can relax, sunbathe, swim and enjoy water sports such as surfing, diving or parasailing.
  • Mountains and natural parks: Thailand offers great opportunities for hiking, cycling, and trips to tropical waterfalls and volcanoes, such as Khao Sok National Park or Koh Chang.
  • Thai boxing: Thailand is the birthplace of Thai boxing (Muay Thai), and you can visit special places where you can watch this exciting martial art or even try yourself as a fighter.
  • Markets and Shopping: Thailand is known for its colorful markets, where you can find everything from fruits and vegetables to souvenirs and designer clothes. Popular shopping destinations in Thailand are Bangkok and Pattaya.
  • Excursions and Tours: You can go on one-day or multi-day excursions to visit the famous tourist attractions of Thailand, such as temples, caves, ancient cities or islands. Popular places to visit are Chiang Mai, Phuket and Krabi.
  • Spa and massage: Thailand is a place where you can enjoy a variety of massages and spa treatments. Traditional Thai massage, Ayurveda and holistic treatments are available at most resorts and spas.
  • Cooking Classes: If you are interested in Thai cuisine, you can take cooking classes to learn how to cook Thai dishes such as pad thai, som tam and tom yum.
  • Nightclubs and entertainment: Most tourist cities in Thailand offer a wide range of nightclubs, bars and discos where you can dance and have fun until the morning.
  • Watch a theater or cabaret show: In Bangkok, you can watch exciting theatrical performances from the national theater or visit a ladyboy cabaret.
  • Diving and snorkeling: Thailand offers a luxurious underwater world where you can go diving or snorkeling and explore coral reefs and a variety of fish species, for example, on the islands of Koh Tao or Koh Lipe.

Thailand has plenty of entertainment for all tastes and preferences. You can enjoy the beauty of nature, get to know the local culture and traditions, experience adrenaline in extreme entertainment and just relax on the beach. Thailand is an ideal place for a rich and interesting holiday.

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